Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that results in alternating periods of
elation and depression. Frequent transitions between these two extreme moods
lead to manic depression or bipolar disorder. It is common in young adults. People
who suffer with bipolar disorders go through the following phases, also known as
1. Manic phase
During this phase, a person always feels highly energetic and happy. It can also make
them easily frustrated and irritable. This phase usually lasts for a week.
2. Hypomanic phase
This phase is relatively less severe than the manic phase. A person might become
extremely talkative, easily distracted and possess higher self-esteem. It is an easily
noticeable symptom of bipolar disorder and lasts for a few days only.
3. Depressive phase
The person falls into depression in this phase. Depression symptoms are likely to
appear that affect the person's daily activities. That is usually the longest phase and
may last up to two weeks.
The actual cause of this disease is still unknown, but the following factors might
relate to the cause of this disease
A person is prone to bipolar disorder if this disease runs in his family.
Excessive stress and anxiety can lead to bipolar disorder.
-Intake of drugs
Abuse of drugs is also one of the leading causes of bipolar disorder.
-Other mental disorders
The chance of acquiring bipolar disorder increases if the person has been diagnosed
with other mental health problems.
Types of Bipolar Disorders:
Bipolar disorders can be divided into the following types based on the duration of
each mood episode:
1. Bipolar I disorder
It is caused when a person suffers at least once with a manic phase followed by a
depressive or hypomanic phase. The person suffering from this disorder starts to live
away from reality.
2. Bipolar II disorder
Bipolar II disorder is diagnosed when the person has suffered through a depressive
and hypomanic phase but never a manic phase.
3. Cyclothymic disorder
The person is diagnosed with cyclothymic disorder after suffering from depressive
and hypomanic phases for more than two years.
4. Other bipolar disorders
Other bipolar disorders might be caused by a reaction to medications or other
mental health disorders. Drug abuse might also lead to other bipolar disorders.
Some common treatments for bipolar disorders include psychotherapy and
medications. If you note any of the symptoms mentioned, seek a psychologist for
diagnosis to prevent further damage to the brain. Mental health problems require
necessary treatments as avoiding treatment might be life threatening in some cases
Effects of Bipolar Disorder on the Brain:
Mental health conditions might cause specific structural and functional alterations in
the brain. Bipolar disorders affect the smaller and most sensitive regions in the brain.
It also leads to changes in brain chemicals that cause hallucinations. Some parts of
the brain also reduce in size. The parts of the brain that are affected the most are:
The Prefrontal Cortex: The function of the prefrontal cortex includes sending and
Grey Matter: It is responsible for sensory and muscular functions. Studies have
shown people suffering from this disease have reduced grey matter.
The Hippocampus: This part of the brain is responsible for emotions.
Bipolar disorder - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
The 5 Types of Bipolar Disorder (verywellmind.com)
Hypomania: Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment (verywellmind.com)
Effects of bipolar disorder on the brain (medicalnewstoday.com)
Gray and White Matter | Structure, Functions, Location, Facts & Difference (human-memory.net)